Electric car electric motor life expectancy
Here is the Electric motor life expectancy : How long an Electric Vehicle Motor last?
An electric motor is an electrical machine that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy. Most electric motors work by interacting between the motor’s magnetic field and electrical current in a wire winding to create a force in the form of torque applied to the motor shaft. Electric motor life expectancy
Today, no auto enthusiast can claim to be ignorant of the electric vehicle landscape in the industry. The EV segment is gaining momentum after Tesla shook the roots of the auto industry. All the major automakers have joined the race to give this world the best electric vehicle possible. The economical driving experience, the tax benefits, the respect for the environment, and the practicality were the main attractions.
This is a relatively new piece of technology with many innovations that require no stop research and development, which is why the prices for these products are high. Since owning an electric vehicle is a great investment, all owners want their valuable possession to last for a long time. As an advantage over ICE (Internal Combustion Engine) cars, electric vehicles have fewer moving parts, so they are efficient and fail less often. Electric motor life expectancy
The number of components may be less, but those present in electric vehicles determine the cost of using the electric vehicle. Let’s understand these factors that affect the life of these components. The life expectancy of an electric vehicle can be estimated based on the performance of the electric motor and the performance of the battery. Electric motor life expectancy
Electric Motor Life expectancy
The electric car segment has picked up speed as more automakers enter the game, variations in technology can be seen. On the basis of electric motors, permanent magnet synchronous motor, alternating current induction motor, reluctance motor, and direct current motor are mainly used.
Electric motors work better because they are less complex and do not require motor oils, additional belts, or generators. Another plus point is that the industrial ambient temperature is set at 40 ° C and the operating temperatures with Class F insulation do not exceed ° C.
Types of Electric Motors
- Permanent Magnet Reluctance Motors: Electric motor life expectancy
Permanent magnet motors are pre-excited by the magnets, resulting in a slightly better degree of efficiency compared to the perfect flow control of AC induction motors. With these capabilities, both configurations make it a good choice for single-speed variable speed transmissions as powertrains in electric vehicles. Electric motor life expectancy
Permanent magnet motor offers better cost optimization and achieves desired range and performance. The mean deviation is very suitable in the case of intermittent traffic. Electric motor life expectancy
- DC Motors Electric Vehicles
A DC motor needs between 96 and 192 volts to run. DC motors produce higher torque, which makes it more economical. DC motors can be classified as brushed DC motor, BLDC or brushless DC motor, and stepper motor.
The Brushed DC Motors are used to retract, position and extend the electrically operated side windows. These engines are inexpensive. However, their internals tends to wear out relatively quickly, making them vulnerable to regular maintenance and frequent replacement.
A BLDC motor does not use brushes, but an electronic commutator, which increases its efficiency and reliability while avoiding power losses and wear. These motors offer some significant advantages over induction motors and brushed DC motors, faster dynamic response, quieter operation, higher speed ranges, better speed-torque characteristics, etc.
It offers higher torque compared to its size, making it a good choice for manufactures of electric vehicles where high performance and low weight are required. The only downside is that they require regulated power supplies and sophisticated control electronics.
- AC Induction motor:
AC motors run on alternating current. It has three phases. Its regenerative capabilities also help with battery charging. AC motors are quieter and more powerful. The basic principles of magnetism are used in these motors. A coil of wire along with a pair of magnets surrounds a shaft and forms the main components here.
When the spool of wire receives an alternating current, it begins to act as an electromagnet that creates a magnetic field. AC motors are divided into two categories, namely induction motor (unsynchronous motor) and synchronous motor (PM motor).
AC induction motors are a preferred choice for electric vehicles due to the advancement of speed control with power electronics. They are inexpensive, reliable, and easy to control.
In synchronous motors, the rotating magnetic field ensures that the rotor rotates synchronously, unlike an induction motor, in which the rotational speed of the rotor is less than that of the magnetic field. They are more efficient, have higher torque and power density, and are compact and lighter.
Factors affecting the expectancy life of Electric vehicles Motors:
- Fluctuations in the Input power
- Wrong installation of the machine
- Environmental factors such as heat, weather, etc.
- Rapid load changes
However, the useful life of an electric motor can range from 15 to 20 years, provided it is used within the specified values and under normal operating conditions.
Maintenance of an Electric Car:
With advancements in motor analysis, certain tools/devices have made critical maintenance and repair decisions much easier while simplifying methodologies. Electric motors support the drive by converting electrical energy into mechanical forces. Although the correct calculation of forces such as speed, torque, mechanical power, etc. It provides a lot of information that indicates the low performance of an electric motor.
Reasons for Motor Failure:
Engine failures can be greatly delayed with proper maintenance. In the event of improper maintenance, engines are more prone to failure than expected. The correct understanding of the behavior of the engine and its care allows the engine to reach its maximum useful life. Let’s take a look at these important causes.
- Overheating: Overheating leads to insulation failures in an Electric motor. The reason for overheating can be poor quality of power supply or high environmental temperature.
- Electrical Overload: Excessive current flow through motor windings, exceeding safety/efficiency levels, leads to electrical overload. A lower voltage supply will cause the motor to draw too much current to maintain its torque. Excessive voltage supply and a shorted wire contribute to the factors that cause electrical overload.
- Low Resistance: Deterioration in the insulation of the windings due to physical damage, corrosion, and overheating, etc. are the causes of low resistance in motors, resulting in inadequate insulation between motor windings or conductors, leading to short circuits and leaks, causing motor failure.
- Vibration: Premature failures are a very likely result of unwanted vibrations in an engine. Often caused by improper placement of the motor on unstable or uneven surfaces, or by corrosion, misalignment, etc., these vibrations will significantly shorten the life of the motor.
These factors determine how good the electric motor should be, maintaining its health and extending its useful life by years. Under test conditions, an electric motor can last between 15 and 20 years, provided it is used within the specified values and under normal operating conditions. When it comes to miles, tests have shown that they can achieve a range of more than 400,000 miles in their lifetime. Tesla’s PMSRM unit has been claimed to have passed the 1 million mile test.